Hey man, not to rain on your parade, but do you see many chinese guys running in guangzhou? most of them just play football or go kobe style with bball. In factdo you see any of them running 100m sprints in record time any major sporting events. hahaha. They have sports centers with tracks and football fields and weightlifting but no real athletics associations such as you are seeking. Why not just hook with a chinese guy and start your own Atheletics association? If they see a foreigner engage in it they are more apt to get motivated.
You might be able to find a marathon club, I have seen many people participate in the marathons, but strangely I never see so many people actually preparing for them..so I dont know if they just run the marathons when they happen or what...that is is a strange thing and yes, quite a few people usually go to hospital while attempting the marathons..lol
If you want a run club, you may find people at Baiyun Mountain.
But as Bob commented, no professional track and field where you have access to a track.
The Metro isn't enough exercise for you? :P
White Cloud Mountain Park has an endless series of small, dirt trails that vary in elevation gain and terrain difficulty, and are quiet and peaceful just a few minutes in from the West Gate at No. 1130 Baiyun Dadao Nan,or Yuan Xia Tian Cun northwest gate off Cong Yun Lu and the Yun Shan Ju bus stop, or the new gate on the north side of the park along Tong Tai Lu, directly across from the Yi He Shan Zhuang Village bus stop and apartments, which is 1 KM east of Yong Tai metro on Line 3.